Kaffara (Penalty) of breaking fast and Actions that break the fast (Roza)

Actions that break the fast (Roza) and Kaffara (Penalty) of breaking fast


Actions that break the fast (Roza) and Kaffara (Penalty) of breaking fast
If the fast of Ramadan is purposely broken then Kaffara is necessary. The Kaffara (compensation) is either to free one slave and if this is not possible then keep sixty fasts consecutively without a gap and if this is also not possible then feed fully sixty beggars twice in a day. If the sixty fasts are kept and in the middle even if one day's fast is missed then you must start the sixty again the previous ones will not count. If someone had kept fifty nine fasts and was unable to keep the sixtieth due to illness etc. then they must start again the previous fifty nine are wasted.

However, if a woman starts her period in between then she must miss them and continue the fasts once she becomes clean and the previous fasts before the period started will count and when completing sixty the Kaffara will be completed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Alamgiri]. When breaking the fast and for Kaffara to become necessary there are a few conditions that have to be fulfilled and only then the Kaffara become necessary.

Conditions where Kaffara become necessary
  1. A fast is kept in the month of Ramadan with the intention of keeping a fast of Ramadan.
  2. The person keeping the fast is a resident and not a traveller.
  3. The person is an adult and is sane (if a child or madman breaks the fast then Kaffara is not necessary).
  4. The intention for the fast of Ramadan was done at night (if the intention for the fast was made in the day before midday and then broken then only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara).
  5. After breaking the fast an act occurred which gives reason to miss a fast which you had no control over such as a woman started her period or such an illness occurred where it is allowed to miss a fast then the Kaffara will not be necessary. If however, after breaking the fast a person became a Ma'zoor (had a problem) which was within their control such as a person injured themselves and therefore became Ma'zoor or became a traveller then the Kaffara will not be cancelled as these things are within their control and Kaffara becomes necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
  6. Rule: A person fasting purposely eat or drank some medicine or tablets or drank water or had something to eat or drink for pleasure or had intercourse in the front or back passage with a person capable of having intercourse (male or female) and whether they had an orgasm or not or had intercourse with another person fasting then in all these situations both Qaza and Kaffara is necessary.
  7. Rule: If such an act is done whereby the thought is that the fast will not break(except eating, drinking or having intercourse), but you thought that the fast has broken and then you eat or drank, for example, you extracted blood or put on Surma (eye colour) or you had intercourse with an animal or touched a woman or kissed a woman or laid next to a woman or performed foreplay but in all these cases you did not reach orgasm i.e. did not ejaculate, or you put a dry finger up the anus and then after this you purposely eat or drank then in all these cases it is necessary to perform Qaza and Kaffara. If however, an act is performed where the thought is that the fast does not break and you thought that the fast had broken and a Mufti (Islamic jurist) gave a Fatwa and the Mufti is respected within the local community and the Fatwa is that the fast has broken and then you purposely eat or drank, or you had wrongly misinterpreted a Hadith and thought that the fast had broken and then you eat and drank, then the Kaffara is not necessary even though the Fatwa is wrong or the Hadith heard is not proven [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

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