Conditions in which one can forgo fasting (Part2)

Q11: Can a menstruating woman forms Niyat of fast or not if she becomes free from it before the dawn of Fajr?
Q12: At what stage of their life can old men and women forgo fasting?
Q13: Should a Shaikh-e-Faanee observe fasts in winter in lieu of summer or give Fidyah?
Q14: What injunction is there for the one who can not observe fasts owing to weakness?
Q15: What injunction is there for the one who collapses because of hunger and thirst?
Q16: Can a fasting man break his fast before time or not under duress?
Q17: What injunction is there for a "Muqeem" fasting man who is under duress?
Q18: Can a fasting man break his fast or not if stung by a snake?
Q19: Is Qada compulsory or not for those who break their fast before time due to some valid excuse?
Q20: Should Qada fasts be observed serially or not?
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Q11: Can a menstruating woman forms Niyat of fast or not if she becomes free from it before the dawn of Fajr?
A. If a woman who has Haiz-o-Nifaas becomes free from it after full ten days at such a time that night has run out leaving not even a few moments in which she could say "Al-Laahu Akbar" once, in such case observance of fast is Waajib. She should make intention of the fast and take bath as early as possible. And in case, she becomes free from Haiz-o-Nifaas before ten days but there is so enough time in finishing the night that she can take bath and say "Al-Laahu Akbar" before the dawn of Fajr then the observance of fast is Fard. (She should better take bath before dawn. If can not, then make intention of fast and take bath later but before Fajr prayer). But if the time left (in finishing the night) is not enough then fast will not be Fard. However, she should spend the day as a fasting woman and should not do such things that are opposed to fasting like eating and drinking.

Q12: At what stage of their life can old men and women forgo fasting?
A. It is permissible for such old men and women who are called "Shaikh-e-Faanee" by the Shari'ah (i.e. who are so emaciated by the old age that they can not observe fasts and there is also no hope of improvement) to forgo fasting. But it is compulsory for them to pay "Fidyah" (payment or feedig an indigent to relieve oneself of the obligation) for each fast.

Q13: Should a Shaikh-e-Faanee observe fasts in winter in lieu of summer or give Fidyah?
A. If an old man or woman can not observe fasts in summer but can in winter then he/she can forgo fasting in summer for observing in winter. He/She can not pay Fidyah in such case.

Q14: What injunction is there for the one who can not observe fasts owing to weakness?
A. "Real weakness" must be distinguished from that of "lack of courage". The first thing to this effect is that sometimes devil inveigles one into believing that he can not do such and such work. If he attempts to, he will be putting his life in peril. But when he takes courage to do the work seeking Allah's grace then he comes through with flying colours without the slightest damage to oneself. "Lack of courage" is nothing but a deception of Satan. Some people are there who do observe fasts even after 75 years of age and contrary to this some people who are under 70 can not do it because of weakness. Therefore, reality and unreality must be distinguished well from each other to save oneself from the devilish subterfuges. Secondly, some people (faced with weakness) can not observe fasts in summer but can in winter. Such people can not pay Fidyah for their fasts but they should forgo fasts in summer and observe their Qada in winter. Thirdly, some weak people can not observe fasts of the whole month (of Ramadaan) continuously but can do intermittently. Such people should observe as many fasts as they can in Ramadaan and observe Qada of the unobserved ones in winter. Fourthly, a young or old who is so weakened by some disease that he can not observe fasts, can not pay Fidyah for his fasts but should wait for recovery. If he dies before recovery he should, when death is nigh, make a will for the payment of Fidyah. In brief, Fidyah can be paid for fasts only when one can fast neither in summer nor in winter and neither continuously nor intermittently and that the excuse,reason due to which he can not observe fast must be genuine like old age which is an irreversible phenomenon. Some naive people think that every that person can pay Fidyah for his fasts who feels a difficulty in observance of fasts. It is not so at all. The facility of Fidyah is meant for Shaikh-e-Faanee only as expounded above.

Q15: What injunction is there for the one who collapses because of hunger and thirst?
A. If a fasting man collapses due to hunger and thirst and his life or the senses are in peril, in such case he can break his fast before time. No Kaffaarah will be due but he will have to observe Qada fast.

Q16: Can a fasting man break his fast before time or not under duress?
A. A fasting man can break his fast before time under duress. For example, he is threatened with death or amputation of any limb of the body or severe beating and he is sure that the threateners will do what they say if he does not break the fast, in such situation he must break his fast before time. If he does not and is killed by the threateners then he will be sinner, for, in such dire situations breaking fast before time even (God forbid!) drinking wine or blood and eating carrion or pork is as much permissible as these things are "Mubaah" (permissible) for the one who faces the pangs of hunger and is under compulsion. However, this injunction applies to only travelers and the sick who observed fast despite the leave (granted to them by the Shari'ah in this regard) and are now faced with duress.

Q17: What injunction is there for a "Muqeem" fasting man who is under duress?
A. If a fasting man who is "Muqeem" (resident) or healthy, is forced to break his fast before time can break fast if he wills. However, it is better for him not to break his fast and face torture with patience. If dies in this condition, he will be greatly rewarded in the hereafter.

Q18: Can a fasting man break his fast or not if stung by a snake?
A. If a snake stings a fasting man endangering his life he can break his fast before time.

Q19: Is Qada compulsory or not for those who break their fast before time due to some valid excuse?
A. It is compulsory for those who broke their fasts before time due to Shar'ee reason (valid excuse) to observe Qada fasts.

Q20: Should Qada fasts be observed serially or not?
A. It is not compulsory to observe Qada fasts serially. If one observes Nafil fasts before Qada fasts those will be deemed to have been observed. But the injunction to this effect is that Qada fasts should be observed soon after the excuse (the disability because of which the fasts were forgone,omitted) is over and before the coming of next Ramadaan. There is in a Hadees that fasts of one of the current Ramadaan will not be accepted who owes Qada (fasts) of the previous Ramadaan. However, if one could not observe Qada and in the meanwhile second Ramadaan approached then he should observe fasts of this Ramadaan and observe Qada fasts later.

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